Lucca between the city-states of Tuscany was the only one to have retained its independence until 1847.
The nobles from Lucca have protected the freedom of the city, building up a defensive wall (XVI-XVII cent) from the perimeter of 4250 km with 10 bastions and a terraces still partially preserved.
Walking in the walled medieval town you can see the monuments of different epochs as the Roman Amphitheater, the Basilica of San Frediano, the square and the church of San Michele, the tomb of Ilaria del Carretto carved by Jacopo della Quercia and the Duomo San Martino with the Holy Face, the Tower of Guinigi via Filungo, the Palazzo Ducale in Piazza Napoleone, latest evidences of the Principality of Lucca.
Due to independence and to the protective walls Lucca has managed to maintain almost intact the historical city center of the city in its original appearance, showing numerous precious pieces of architecture as the many medieval churches ( Lucca for the presence of several churches in historic core, is called the "city of 100 churches"), steeples and towers, Renaissance palaces and monuments. Square Amphitheater built on the ruins of a Roman amphitheater, designed by architect Lorenzo Nottolini, is a charming urban space, unique architecture.
The main artery of the Old Town is via Fillungo, narrow and typically medieval, where there are the major shops.